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Devenir « hors-la-loi » pour survivre : stratégies, transgressions et représentations des femmes latino-américaines (1950-2010)

Caroline Mackenzie (UMR TELEMME) | Résumé de la communication

Prendre l’initiative de se lancer sur les routes en quête d’une meilleure vie pour soi, pour ses enfants : est-ce une transgression ou la seule réponse à la nécessité pour les femmes des pays de l’Amérique latine et centrale? Le passage illégal aux États-Unis représente certainement une transgression des lois américaines, mais est-ce une transgression...

Expériences de la recherche

L’objectif de ces courts-métrages, de trois minutes, se focalise sur le rôle social des chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales. La présentation de plusieurs facettes de la recherche, dans un laboratoire SHS, s’effectue à partir de tournages sur les lieux de travail, et d’entretiens avec les acteurs eux-mêmes (doctorants, chercheurs, personnel administratif). Ces courts-métrages mettent en image la diversité des métiers de la recherche. Cliquez-ici pour les découvrir...

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RSS Participations externes
  • jeu. 03 mai 18 | Interview media
    Isabelle Grenut, Les pupilles de l'Assistance publique des Basses-Alpes sous la IIIe République,
    Mare Nostrum, Radio Zinzine 12h30-13h30, Aix-en-Provence

  • ven. 11 mai 18 | Colloque
    Eve Fourmont-Giustiniani, La patrimonialisation de l'exil républicain espagnol au Mexique,
    Patrimonialiser la mémoire diasporique. IIIe colloque international du projet « Pensando Goa », Aix-Marseille Université : IMAF/CNRS, IRASIA / Chaire Eduardo Lourenço, Marseille

  • ven. 11 mai 18 | Colloque

    Le Mercure François est un recueil continu d'histoire politique du temps présent, souvent considéré par l'historiographie comme le premier périodique français. Il est constitué de 25 volumes d'environ un millier de pages chacun publiés annuellement à Paris entre 1611 et 1648. L'imprimeur marchand libraire Jean Richer est à l'origine du premier tome. Dès la parution du deuxième tome en 1613, Estienne Richer, le frère de Jean, semble remplacer ce dernier dans l'entreprise de publication du Mercure François. En réalité, la réapparition du nom de Jean Richer accolé à celui de son frère sur la page de titre du huitième tome publié en 1623 confirme l'hypothèse d'une collaboration entre les deux frères. Ce travail collectif se poursuit jusqu'au décès de Jean Richer en 1627. Estienne Richer reste à la tête de la publication jusqu'en 1637. Plusieurs facteurs expliquent la mise en place de cette collaboration familiale d'une part et la relative discrétion de cette collaboration dans ses premières années, d'autre part. 

     


    Virginie Cerdeira, Le Mercure François, fruit d'une collaboration familiale,
    Créer à plusieurs? Collaborations littéraires, artistiques et scientifiques au Grand siècle, CIR 17, centre de recherches internationales sur le XVII ième siècle, Gilles Declercq, Jean Leclerc, Michèle Longino, Volker Schröder, Deborah Steinberger, Ellen Welch, Carolyn Yerkes, Princeton

  • lun. 14 mai 18 | Séminaire
    Guillaume Alonge, "Du Courtisan à l’Évangile : le cardinal Federico Fregoso dans la crise politique et religieuse du XVIe siècle" ,
    Séminaire Histoire moderne, Paris Sorbonne, Jean-Marie Le Gall, Paris

  • mer. 16 mai 18 | Colloque

    Historians of the medieval and early modern European economy have traditionally concentrated on the legalities underpinning economic activity, as shown, for instance, by the large body of work dealing with the corporate system in this period. Recently, however, some historians have taken a great interest in the wide spectrum of activities existing beyond the regulated and legal economy, showing that irregular practices were a structural characteristic of early modern economies. At the same time, women’s work has been the focus of much research dealing with women and gender in the early modern economy. These studies have produced important results on the variety of female activities, ranging from business to petty trading. Women played a prominent role in the regulated market, even if they were rarely mentioned in traditional source materials or relegated to a minor position by the guilds. Although the vast majority of women – as well as men – were not able to join guilds, they could nevertheless forge complex bonds with the corporate system. Women were thus omnipresent in a wide variety of informal or illegal work, a fact which blurred the boundaries between guild and non-guild worlds. However, little scholarly attention has been paid to the dark or unofficial side of the preindustrial economy from a gender perspective.

    Women who were discriminated against in terms of rights to citizenship, property ownership and access to work nonetheless played a key role in the early modern underground economy that was never completely separated from the rising market economy. The aim of this paper is to explore female involvement in a wide range of illicit economic activities: from survival strategies for the poor to criminal activities such as smuggling. From this perspective, it concentrates on Lyon’s textile trades, a highly feminized sector in the eighteenth century. At a time of strong demographic and economic expansion, women took advantage of demand for consumer and luxury goods, especially in the garment sector, to find a niche for themselves in the cloth trades, in both licit and illicit ways. As elsewhere in Europe, the presence of guilds had a significant impact, both positive and negative, on the opportunities available to women. In March 1673, a royal edict required all unincorporated trades to form guilds. In several French cities, due to this reform, it was possible for women to create guilds in ‘feminine’ trades or to become members of mixed guilds. However, in Lyon many corporations continued to exclude women – with the exception of widows – from a wide range of professions in the preindustrial economy, thus relegating them to minor or marginal roles. This paper therefore compares traditional source materials for the urban economy (guilds’ archives) with specific documentation on practices, such as police ordinances and records of court proceedings relating to infringements and conflicts. Particular attention is given to the way women deliberately utilized, or circumvented, the systems in place in order to establish their economic identity in a gendered, and sometimes hostile, urban community. By interrogating the way in which women took advantage of loopholes in the law to rise above the restrictions on their lives, we can shed new light on their agency in the early modern urban economy. The existing economic environment based on secrecy and solidarity, how women negotiated this environment, the ways in which women (and men) used the urban space as a resource to undertake their activities, both licit and illicit, and finally, the ambiguous attitude of social and political institutions towards female subversive work also need to be taken into account.

    In order to understand the issues, modalities, and spatial configurations of informal and illicit forms of women’s work in a major industrial city during the eighteenth century, the first part
    Anne Montenach, Working at the margins: women and illicit economic practices in Lyon in the Late Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,
    Invisible Hands: Reassessing the History of Work, Catriona MacLeod (University of Glasgow, Centre for Gender History), Glasgow

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